Appendix B – Warfare and Invasions


1521 – Ayllon’s slave hunting expedition, took 70 Cusabo Indians (SC) to Spain, further explorations in 1525 and 1526.


1540 – DeSoto’s expedition, he was brutal to the Indians and destroyed a great number of the Yuchi.


1559 – DeLuna settlement at Pensacola, Florida with 1500 soldiers/settlers, abandoned the establishment entirely the next year.


1565 – Muskogee (Creek) attacked by Spaniards (Georgia, Alabama).


1566 – 1567 - The Catawba declined from disease, liquor and constant warfare.


1577 – Yuchi (Florida) attacked by Spanish and suffered greatly.


1579 – Cusabo (SC) Indian town destroyed by Spanish.


1597 – Gaule towns burned (Georgia).


The Eno greatly resisted the advance of the Spanish (Lawson, 1709)[1].


1605-1606 – Nauset Indians (Mass.) skirmish with Champlain.


1614 – Hunt sold Nauset tribal members into slavery.


1617 – Massachuset tribe reduced by war with neighbor tribe and pestilence.


1622-1635 - Jamestown, Powhatan at war with colonists, again in 1644.


1637 – 600 Pequot (CT) killed in attack by whites, the survivors kept as slaves of whites or sold into West Indies as slaves.


1642 – 1678 - Nanticote war with the colonists (Maryland).


1650 – Neutrals destroyed by Iroquois (NY).


1656 – Powhatan (VA) defeated by Manahoac Indians.


1671-1676 – Cusabo (SC) at war with colonists.


1675 – Conoy (MD) attacked by Susquehanna.


1675 – In a war with the colonists, the Narranganset (RI) were massacred which ended the tribe.


1676 – After chronic warfare for decades, the Iroquois conquered the Susquehanna (NY, PA).


1683 – Winyaw in SC raided by colonists for slaves.


1693 – Cusabo and colonist war (SC).


1696 – The Coree (NC) greatly reduced before 1696 by a war with another native people.


1700 – Lawson states that Sewee (SC) were once a tribe with a large population but by 1700 they were wasted by smallpox and alcohol and a large number of men had been lost at sea in an attempt to open closer trade relations with England.  The Yamasee War in 1715 finished destroying them.


1704 – English and Creek destroy Apalachee town in Georgia, after which remaining Apalachee were sent to missions.


1706-1707 – Apalachicola (FL) carried off by English and Indian allies.


1711 – 1713 - Tuscarora War – NC and SC tribes, devastated a great many tribes, survivors sold into slavery.


1711 – Pamlico in NC destroyed by the Tuscarora, some may have been taken as Tuscarora slaves.


1715 – Yamasee War, SC and part of NC.


1715 – Apalachee (Georgia) involved in Yamasee War.


1715 – Apalachicola (Florida) in the Yamassee War.


1715 – Wateree (SC) devastated by Yamasee War.


1715 – Waxhaw (NC/SC border) mostly killed in Yamasee War.


1715 – Congaree in Yamasee War, SC.


1715 – Yamasee War ended the Sewee (SC) and Sugeree (SC, NC) Indians.


1715 – After the Yamasee War, most of the Santee Indians (SC) were captured and sold as slaves to the West Indies.


1716 – Over half of the Congaree (SC) were captured and sent to the West Indies to be slaves.


1720 – Waccamaw at war with colonists, survivors sold into slavery.


1720 – Delaware defeated by the Iroquois (NJ).


1722 – Iroquois agree to stop attacking the Virginia Indians.


1724-1725 - Abnaki are defeated by English colonists in Maine.


1754 – 1795 - The Shawnee are involved with the French and Indian war and subsequent incursions, widely dispersed.


1755 – Waccamaw at war with Cherokee and Natchez.


1755 – Cherokee at war with the Creek (Georgia).


1760 – Cherokee at war with SC.


1763 – Muskogee (Creek) destroyed Florida Indians prior to 1763.


1763 – The remnant of the Susquehanna tribe massacred by whites (Pennsylvania).


1769 – Cherokee defeated by Chicasaw (Northern Alabama, Mississippi).


1675 – Wampanoag (Mass.) war with whites, the power of the northeastern tribes destroyed.


1780-1794 – Cherokee sided with the British in the Revolutionary War.


1835-1839 – Tribal removal to lands west of Mississippi, primarily in current Oklahoma, known as the Trail of Tears.  A minimum of 20% of the population died.  Some allege that this number should be doubled or tripled and that the removal was in fact designed to maximize casualties as a form of genocide, given the time of year and lack of provisions.  After the relocation itself, many more died in their new homeland of starvation and disease.




Lawson, John (1709)  A New Voyage to Carolina Containing the Exact Description and Natural History of that Country Together with the Present State thereof and A Journal of a Thousand Miles, Travel’d thro’ several Nations of Indians Giving a particular Account of their Customs Manners, etc. by John Lawson, Gent. Surveyor-General of North Carolina, London, Printed in the Year 1709.  Reprinted as A New Voyage to Carolina, Hugh T. Lefler, ed., University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1984.


[1] From John Lawson’s report, no date or location given, was probably south of where the Eno were in NC at the time Lawson lived among them.