Appendix D – Early Opportunities for
the Introduction of Non-Native Y-line
500-600 - St. Brendan's
fabled sixth century voyage from
985 – A Norse group of
settlers is blown off course and discovers
996 - Possibly the beginnings of Mediterranean and North African (Muslin travel to the Americans) - renowned American historian and linguist, Leo Weiner of Harvard University, in his book, Africa And The Discovery Of America (1920) wrote that Columbus was well aware of the Mandinka presence in the New World and that the West African Muslims had spread throughout the Caribbean, Central, South and North American territories, including Canada, where they were trading and intermarrying with the Iroquois and Algonquin Indians (Mroueh, 1996). This remains unproven.
1000-1010 – The Micmac in
handed down by our forefather, that the works were made by white people, who
had formerly inhabited the country, while the Cherokees lived low down in the
country, now called
Sevier: I then asked him, if he had ever heard any of his ancestors say what nation of people those white people belonged to? He answered:
have heard my grandfather and other old people say, that they were a people
called, Welsh; that they had crossed the great water, and landed near the mouth
of Alabama river, and were finally driven to the heads of its water, and even
to Hiawassee river, by the Mexican Indians, who had been driven out of their
own country by the Spaniards."
Sevier continues in his letter:
years past I happened in company with a Frenchman, who lived with the
Cherokees, and had been a great explorer of the country west of the
Another Welsh encounter
occurred in 1608 at
On November 26, 1608, Peter Wynne, a member of Captain Christopher Newport's exploration party to the villages of the eastern Siouian Monacan above the falls of the James River in Virginia, wrote a letter to John Egerton, informing him that some members of Newport's party believed the pronunciation of the Monacans' language resembled "Welch", which Wynne spoke, and asked Wynne to act as interpreter. The Monacan were among those non-Algonquian[iv] tribes collectively referred to by the Algonquians as "Mandoag".
And yet another, somewhat later, Welsh encounter involving a tribe referenced as the Doeg.
The Reverend Morgan Jones, a Welsh cleric told Thomas Lloyd, William Penn's deputy, that he had been captured in 1669 by a tribe of Tuscaroras[v] called the Doeg who lived on the Pamlico (Lower Tar) River. According to Jones, the chief spared his life when he heard Jones speak to himself in Welsh, a tongue the chief understood. A war captain ransomed him and Jones lived with the Doeg for several months upon the Pontigo (Tar, Pamlico) River, preaching the Gospel in Welsh and then returned to the British Colonies where he later recorded his adventure in 1686.
..."The day after his capture the Indians held a council and condemned Jones and his five companions to death. When an interpreter told them that they were to die the next morning, Jones dejectedly remarked in his native tongue, "have I escaped so many Dangers (of the wilderness), and must I now be knocked in the head like a Dog? Upon hearing this remark a chief man, who seemed to be a war captain belonging to the Sachem of the Doegs, came forward, took Jones by the waist and told him in the "British" tongue that he should not die. This man appeared before the emperor and stood for Jone's ransom. The Welsh clergyman and his companions remained with the Indians four months, talked with them "familiarly in the British Language" and preached to them three times a week in the same language..."[vi]
While these are not
conclusive, they are certainly suggestive that the Welsh language was
introduced into the Native tribes from some source (inferring introduction from
a Welsh individual) at some time pre-1608 (
1474 - Joäo
Corte Real discovered the “
1490 – John Cabot skirted the coast and may have landed on the North American shore.
1497-1498 – John Cabot
searched northern latitudes (
1498 – Unsubstantiated
legend of ship wreck of Croatian sailors from
1513 - Juan Ponce de Leon reportedly the first Spaniard in the area of the US explored what he called la Isla Florida more than once beginning in 1513 and reported that he was looking for the Fountain of Youth, but he was really looking for Indian slaves. He was killed by Indians in 1521.
1517 - Hernandez de Cordoba fought with the Florida Indians eventually dying from his wounds.
1519 - Alonzo Alvarez de
Pineda journeyed to
1520 – Giovanni De Varrazzano under the French flag sailed to
1525 – Portuguese Esteban
Gomez sailing under the Spanish flag captured 58 New England Indians during his
explorations and transported them to
1526 – Juan Vespucci sailed into the
1521 – 1526 -
1528 – Alvar
Nunez Cabeza de Vaca
shipwrecked on the
1528 - Panfilo
de Narvaez landed on
1534-1541 – Cartier sails
and explores 1000 miles into the
1539 - Hernando
1539 – Gallegos discovers
Spanish speaking Indian in
1540 – Francisco Vasquez de Coronado journeyed to Pueblo Indians and beyond beginning in 1540.
1540 – DeSoto
pushes through (present day)
1559 - 1560 - Tristan de
Luna y Arellano with over 1200 men and slaves explored the coastal area of the
1562 – Ribalt’s
Huguenot colony established at
1564 – Spaniards arrive to
remove French at
1565 – Spanish pursue the
French and capture
Including the Spanish in the
southwest and on the West Coast, Europeans managed to become fairly numerous on
Tatton-Wright Map of the
1566 – 1568 – The Juan Pardo Expeditions consisted of about 250 men in two
separate expeditions over 2 years. They
built forts across the Southeast and as far west as present day
1569 – David Ingram, Richard
Twide and Richard Brown walk 4000 miles from near
1570 - Virginia –
1570-71 – Jesuits in
1574 – Shipwreck on
1576 – French ship wrecks in
Royal Sound (Santa Elena) off of the
1577 – Yuchi
1579 – Cusabo (SC) Indian town destroyed by Spanish.
1585 – Ralph Lane’s report
indicates that a group of his men overwintered with
the Chespians (a tribe in the
1585-1586 – Drake and the
Turks, slaves and Indians – After raiding the Caribbean and St. Augustine where
a map drawn in 1589 shows him to have 21 ships in his fleet (Florida State
Drake visits Roanoke Island and rescues the military colonists, returning with
them to England. Lane says in his
journal that 3 men who were on an expedition were left behind. One hundred Turks captured in the
Given the geography of the
area which prevents larger ships from approaching Roanoke Island and requires
that they anchor on the seaward side of the Outer Banks, using a smaller boat
to ferry men and supplies back and forth around the Outer Banks Islands and
across the shoals to Roanoke Island itself, it is highly unlikely that men
would commit suicide in those hurricane driven waters rather than remain on
board with the hope of survival. If they
were abandoned on
Drake with the military
colonists departed June 14 or 15th.
1588 – The Spanish governor
1590 – John White returns to find the colony moved, having left the message, Croatoan, indicating where they had gone.
1593 – Samuel Mace was instructed by Thomas Harriot on how to trade copper for sassafras and in addition to make contact with the colonists at their new location. [xvii]
1594 – John Brenton in a paper to Sir Walter Raleigh, “A company of men manned a new ship and were paid weekly wages to ensure they would not go after ships for plunder, and they are to secure sassafras and instructed to seek out the 1587 colony.”[xviii]
1597 – Gaule
towns burned (
The Eno greatly resisted the advance of the Spanish[xix].
1599 – Florida Governor Gonalo Mendez de Cancio reports
that two relief boats went to
1602 – Gosnold,
lawyer, explorer, privateer, visits
1602 – John Mace sent by Sir
Walter Raleigh to search for the colonists as well as to harvest
sassafras. John Mace had “been at
1603 – Captain Martin Pring sailed to
1603-1606 – Champlain and
other French explore northern US and eastern
1605 – French Colony
1605-1606 – Nauset Indians (
1609 – The Dutch arrived
1609 – Spanish Expedition by Captain Francisco Fernandez de Ecija on the eastern seaboard ransoms a Frenchman and carries on trade and social interaction with the Indians south of current day Roanoke/Hatteras Island. An Indian woman named Maria de Miranda, who is married to a Spaniard, translates for the Spanish/Indians and tells them that she knows where the French and English are settled, but she does not state the location[xxv].
1614 – Hunt sold Nauset tribal members into slavery
1620 – Mayflower in
1634 – Jesuit settlement
among the Conoy in
1661 – English attempt at
colonization on the
1663 – William Hilton from
1664 - 1667 – Second attempt
Brasser TJ (1978) Early Indian-European Contacts. In Trigger
BG, ed., Northeast. Handbook of North American Indians, edited by
WC Sturtevant, vol. 15. Smithsonian
Hudson, Charles (2005) The Juan Pardo
Expeditions, Exploration of the
Long MW (2001)
The Five Lost Colonies of Dare, Family Research Society of
McPherson, O.M. (1915) Indians of
Y (1996) Pre-Columbian Muslims in
Pinson S (2009) The Tristan de Luna Expedition. http://www.de-luna.com/pal.html
Sauer CO (1971) Sixteenth Century
Stick D (1983)
Swanton J (1985)
Final Report of the
Weiner L (1920)
(1999) The Only Land They Knew: The
American Indians in the Old South.
significant amount of speculation exists that this statement may have been
politically motivated as an avenue for the English to establish their “right”
[ii] Known to have been a chief by 1730 and Sevier says he had been a chief at the time of the discussion for more than 50 years.
[iii] In a
letter from John Sevier,
[iv] Monacan were Siouian speakers.
[v] Tuscarora were Iroquoian speakers.
O.M. (1915) Indians of
is not to imply that
Juan Pardo Expeditions, Exploration of the
[xii] 3 were left behind when Drake rescued the 1585-86 group and Grenville deposited 15 men to “hold the fort” a few weeks later who were never found, with the exception of one skeleton. We don’t have the names of the 3 left behind, but we do know 3 names of the Grenville 15, Chapman, Cofer or Coffin and Stucley.
[xiii] A Search for the Lost Colony in Beechland by Philip McMullan, Jr.
[xiv] Florida Memory, State Archives of Florida, http://www.floridamemory.com/floridahighlights/mapstaug.cfm
[xv] The Five Lost Colonies by Mary Wood Long, p 20
[xvi] Spain and Roanoke Island Voyages by
Milagros Flores, commissioned by the National Park Service at
[xix] From John Lawson’s report, no date or location given, was probably south of where the Eno were in NC at the time Lawson lived among them.
[xxv] Spain and Roanoke Island Voyages by
Milagros Flores, commissioned by the National Park Service at
[xxvi] Included only as a point of reference.
Tales and Traditions of the Lower