Appendix D – Early Opportunities for the Introduction of Non-Native Y-line DNA into Native Tribes

 

500-600 - St. Brendan's fabled sixth century voyage from Ireland.

 

985 – A Norse group of settlers is blown off course and discovers Newfoundland.  In 1004, settlement would begin at L’Anse aux Meadows where coastal inhabitation would sporadically occur from that point forward.  Tribes as far south as Massachusetts (Wampanoag, Abnaki, and Micmac) have oral history of contact with the Norse.

 

996  - Possibly the beginnings of Mediterranean and North African (Muslin travel to the Americans) - renowned American historian and linguist, Leo Weiner of Harvard University, in his book, Africa And The Discovery Of America (1920) wrote that Columbus was well aware of the Mandinka presence in the New World and that the West African Muslims had spread throughout the Caribbean, Central, South and North American territories, including Canada, where they were trading and intermarrying with the Iroquois and Algonquin Indians (Mroueh, 1996).  This remains unproven.

 

1000-1010 – The Micmac in Canada, the Wampanoag in Massachusetts and the Abnaki in Maine are reported as possibly having contact with Norse voyages in this timeframe (Swanton, 1953).

 

1170 – Prince Madoc – settlement in Mobile Bay.  Hakluyt says “Madoc did sail”[i] and a Cherokee Chief, Oconostotto[ii], relates to John Sevier his knowledge about the “Welsh Indians”[iii] about 1780:

 

“It is handed down by our forefather, that the works were made by white people, who had formerly inhabited the country, while the Cherokees lived low down in the country, now called South Carolina, and that a war existed between the two nations for many years.  At length, it was discovered, that the whites were making a number of large boats, which induced the Cherokees to suppose, that they intended to descend the Tennessee River.  They then collected their whole band of warriors, and took the shortest and most convenient route to the muscle shoals in order to intercept them down the river.  In a few days, the boats were in sight, and a warm combat ensued, with various success for several days.  At length the whites proposed to the Indians, that if they would exchange prisoners, and cease hostilities, they would leave the country, and never more return; which was acceded to, and, after the exchange, parted in friendship.  The whites then descended the Tennessee to the Ohio, and then down to the big river, (Mississippi) then up it to the muddy river, (Missouri) then up that river to a very great distance.  They are now on some of it's branches; But they are no longer a white people; they are now all become Indians; and look like the other red people of the country:" 

Sevier:  I then asked him, if he had ever heard any of his ancestors say what nation of people those white people belonged to?  He answered:

 

"I have heard my grandfather and other old people say, that they were a people called, Welsh; that they had crossed the great water, and landed near the mouth of Alabama river, and were finally driven to the heads of its water, and even to Hiawassee river, by the Mexican Indians, who had been driven out of their own country by the Spaniards." 

Sevier continues in his letter:

 

“ Many years past I happened in company with a Frenchman, who lived with the Cherokees, and had been a great explorer of the country west of the Mississippi.  He informed me, " that he had been high up the Missouri, and traded several months with the Welsh tribe; that they spoke much of the Welsh dialect, and although their customs were savage and wild, yet many of them, particularly the females were very fair and white, and frequently told him, they had sprung from a white nation of people; also stated they had yet some small scraps of books remaining among them, but in such tattered and destructive order, that nothing intelligible remained."  He observed that their settlement was in a very obscure part of the Missouri, surrounded with innumerable lofty mountains.  The Frenchman's name has escaped my memory, but I believe it was something like Duroque.”

Another Welsh encounter occurred in 1608 at Jamestown. 

On November 26, 1608, Peter Wynne, a member of Captain Christopher Newport's exploration party to the villages of the eastern Siouian Monacan above the falls of the James River in Virginia, wrote a letter to John Egerton, informing him that some members of Newport's party believed the pronunciation of the Monacans' language resembled "Welch", which Wynne spoke, and asked Wynne to act as interpreter. The Monacan were among those non-Algonquian[iv] tribes collectively referred to by the Algonquians as "Mandoag".

 

And yet another, somewhat later, Welsh encounter involving a tribe referenced as the Doeg.

 

The Reverend Morgan Jones, a Welsh cleric told Thomas Lloyd, William Penn's deputy, that he had been captured in 1669 by a tribe of Tuscaroras[v] called the Doeg who lived on the Pamlico (Lower Tar) River. According to Jones, the chief spared his life when he heard Jones speak to himself in Welsh, a tongue the chief understood.  A war captain ransomed him and Jones lived with the Doeg for several months upon the Pontigo (Tar, Pamlico) River, preaching the Gospel in Welsh and then returned to the British Colonies where he later recorded his adventure in 1686.

 

..."The day after his capture the Indians held a council and condemned Jones and his five companions to death. When an interpreter told them that they were to die the next morning, Jones dejectedly remarked in his native tongue, "have I escaped so many Dangers (of the wilderness), and must I now be knocked in the head like a Dog? Upon hearing this remark a chief man, who seemed to be a war captain belonging to the Sachem of the Doegs, came forward, took Jones by the waist and told him in the "British" tongue that he should not die. This man appeared before the emperor and stood for Jone's ransom. The Welsh clergyman and his companions remained with the Indians four months, talked with them "familiarly in the British Language" and preached to them three times a week in the same language..."[vi]

 

While these are not conclusive, they are certainly suggestive that the Welsh language was introduced into the Native tribes from some source (inferring introduction from a Welsh individual) at some time pre-1608 (Jamestown) and assuredly before 1669 (Rev. Jones).

 

1474 - Joäo Corte Real discovered the “land of Codfish” that has been interpreted by some to mean Newfoundland.  There is some substantiating evidence.  He was Portuguese and the venture may have been a joint venture between the Danish and Portuguese royalty.

 

1490 – John Cabot skirted the coast and may have landed on the North American shore.

 

1492 – Columbus “sailed the ocean blue”.[vii]

 

1497-1498 – John Cabot searched northern latitudes (Maine and further north) for passage to Asia.  He also visited Hatteras Island.

 

1498 – Unsubstantiated legend of ship wreck of Croatian sailors from Ragusa at Cape Hatteras who integrated with the Indians.

 

1513 - Juan Ponce de Leon reportedly the first Spaniard in the area of the US explored what he called la Isla Florida more than once beginning in 1513 and reported that he was looking for the Fountain of Youth, but he was really looking for Indian slaves.  He was killed by Indians in 1521.

 

1517 - Hernandez de Cordoba fought with the Florida Indians eventually dying from his wounds. 

 

1519 - Alonzo Alvarez de Pineda journeyed to Florida, taking possession of 300 leagues of it for the king.

 

1520 – Giovanni De Varrazzano under the French flag sailed to New York Bay, Narragansett Bay and present-day Maine.  He stopped at the Chesapeake Bay on his way north, kidnapped an unwary Indian and became the first European to describe in writing the natives of the Atlantic coast (Sauer, 1971, p 58; Wright, 1981, p 28).  He later encountered the Indians of what would become Rhode Island and either the Abnaki or Penobscot Indians and called them mal gente, “bad people” (Sauer, 1971, p 61; Brasser, 1978, p 80).

 

1521 - North CarolinaShakori – visited by Lucas Vazquex de Ayllon expedition who was a partner in an expedition that captured Indian slaves off the coast of SC.  Later the Shakori were pushed north by the Pardo expedition.

 

1525 – Portuguese Esteban Gomez sailing under the Spanish flag captured 58 New England Indians during his explorations and transported them to Spain (Sauer, 1971, p 69; Brasser, 1978, p 80).

 

1526 – Juan Vespucci sailed into the Cape Fear River to explore (Judah, 2008, p. 29).

 

1521 – 1526 - North CarolinaAyllon sailed the Cape Fear River, settled 500-600 colonists from the Dominican Republic and their slaves near present day Cape Lookout in 1525-1526.  He abandoned the project when only 150 were left alive and they relocated to Winyaw Bay, SC.  The Cape Fear location is also said to be on Cape Fear in present day SC (Sauer, 1971, pp 72-76; Brasser, 1978, p 80) although it is widely believed to be the North Carolina location.  A ship wrecked at this location during the colonization effort and the survivors rebuilt their boat while staying in the colony.  (Judah, 2008, p. 32)[viii]

 

1528 – Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca shipwrecked on the Texas coast.

 

1528 - Panfilo de Narvaez landed on Florida’s west coast to explore and conquer the Indians there with 300 men. 

 

1534-1541 – Cartier sails and explores 1000 miles into the St. Lawrence Seaway.

 

1539 - Hernando de Soto and Luis de Moscoso de Alvarado invaded Florida and explored westward between 1539 and 1543.  The map below is probably the map of the de Soto expedition as set forth by Swanton (1985, p.343).  This map may have been available to de Luna in 1559.

 

1539 – Gallegos discovers Spanish speaking Indian in Florida.

 

1540 – Francisco Vasquez de Coronado journeyed to Pueblo Indians and beyond beginning in 1540.

 

1540 – DeSoto pushes through (present day) Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee and the Appalachian Mountains to Mississippi with 500-600 men who were brutal to Indians, destroyed towns and tribes and took survivors as slaves.

 

1559 - 1560 - Tristan de Luna y Arellano with over 1200 men and slaves explored the coastal area of the Gulf of Mexico.

 

1562 – Ribalt’s Huguenot colony established at Port Royal (Santa Elena), an island on the coast of present day South Carolina.  In 1564, possession passed to the Spanish. [ix]

 

1564 – Spaniards arrive to remove French at Port Royal, French retreat for the most part to Florida and establish Fort Caroline on the mouth of the St. John’s River, near present day Jacksonville.  The Santa Elena fort was maintained in some capacity by Spanish until 1587 when abandoned.

 

1565 – Spanish pursue the French and capture Fort Caroline (Jacksonville), then establish St. Augustine in Florida.

 

Including the Spanish in the southwest and on the West Coast, Europeans managed to become fairly numerous on North America during the 16th century.  It has been speculated that in 16th century Florida alone the number of colonists, Spanish and otherwise may have numbered 10,000. This of course does not include the many mariners who of their own volition put in at Florida ports for repairs and supplies.  To that number may be added, it has been said, more than 10,000 shipwreck survivors. (Wright, 1981, p 42)  If that is so, the total European and African population on the East Coast was substantial, 20,000 to 25,000 or more (Thornton, 1987, p. 62). 

 

 

The Tatton-Wright Map of the New World, 1600, showing the Spanish settlements along the coast of La Florida (Pinson, 2009).[x]

 

1566 – 1568 – The Juan Pardo Expeditions consisted of about 250 men in two separate expeditions over 2 years.  They built forts across the Southeast and as far west as present day Morgantown, NC.  Some men were stationed at these forts and subsequently abandoned.  They were known to have interacted with the Native women and in at least one case, a later interview reveals a marriage between a soldier who remained and a Native woman.  Their expeditions took them through Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina and into East Tennessee (Hudson, 2005).[xi]

 

1569 – David Ingram, Richard Twide and Richard Brown walk 4000 miles from near Tampico, Mexico to Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, where they are rescued.  48 men are unaccounted for.  Ingram, Twide and Brown testify to Walsingham about this in 1582 in preparation for the New World settlement expeditions and explorations, including the Lost Colony attempt.  Browne is among the colonist surnames.

 

1570 - Virginia – James River - Jesuit Mission – mission extinguished by Powhatan.

 

1570-71 – Jesuits in Chesapeake Bay.

 

1574 – Shipwreck on Hatteras Island provides Indians with metal tools from the iron hardware salvaged from the ship.

 

1576 – French ship wrecks in Royal Sound (Santa Elena) off of the South Carolina coast.

 

1577 – Yuchi (Florida) attacked by Spanish and suffered greatly.

 

1579 – Cusabo (SC) Indian town destroyed by Spanish.

 

1584–1586 – Raleigh’s military expeditions include 135 men in 3 different groups, 18 of which are known to be “lost”[xii].

 

1585 – Ralph Lane’s report indicates that a group of his men overwintered with the Chespians (a tribe in the Chesapeake Bay)[xiii]

 

1585-1586 – Drake and the Turks, slaves and Indians – After raiding the Caribbean and St. Augustine where a map drawn in 1589 shows him to have 21 ships in his fleet (Florida State Archives, 2009)[xiv], Drake visits Roanoke Island and rescues the military colonists, returning with them to England.  Lane says in his journal that 3 men who were on an expedition were left behind.  One hundred Turks captured in the Caribbean by Drake were politically exchanged after the voyage.  Documentation shows that ships were lost in the hurricane encountered at Roanoke and many were drowned.  Reports vary, but Drake was said to have Moors, Indians and slaves aboard that he had taken as plunder.  Reports range from 200 to 700, but reports of any being left at or escaping to Roanoke are unsubstantiated at this time. 

 

Given the geography of the area which prevents larger ships from approaching Roanoke Island and requires that they anchor on the seaward side of the Outer Banks, using a smaller boat to ferry men and supplies back and forth around the Outer Banks Islands and across the shoals to Roanoke Island itself, it is highly unlikely that men would commit suicide in those hurricane driven waters rather than remain on board with the hope of survival.  If they were abandoned on Roanoke Island, access to the mainland is relatively straightforward.  If they were abandoned on Hatteras Island, the mainland is distant and only accessible by connecting with other islands in the chain or rowing 30+ miles across the sound. 

 

Drake with the military colonists departed June 14 or 15th.  Raleigh’s supply ship arrived on June 19th, finding no one, and left for England.  Grenville’s fleet arrived mid July and searched for the military colonists, finding no one, not even any Indians, he left feeling uneasy about the situation.  Grenville was involved in the 1584 burning of the Native village, so perhaps the Indians recognized him and hid, although one would think that some trace of them would be evident[xv].  It is unclear whether he visited Hatteras Island as well as Roanoke.

 

1587 – Raleigh’s Lost Colony of 115 English left on Roanoke Island.

 

1588 – The Spanish governor in Florida reports to the King that the British are living on an island at 43 degrees[xvi].

 

1590 – John White returns to find the colony moved, having left the message, Croatoan, indicating where they had gone.

 

1593 – Samuel Mace was instructed by Thomas Harriot on how to trade copper for sassafras and in addition to make contact with the colonists at their new location. [xvii]

 

1594 – John Brenton in a paper to Sir Walter Raleigh,  “A company of men manned a new ship and were paid weekly wages to ensure they would not go after ships for plunder, and they are to secure sassafras and instructed to seek out the 1587 colony.”[xviii]

 

1597 – Gaule towns burned (Georgia).

 

The Eno greatly resisted the advance of the Spanish[xix].

 

1599 – Florida Governor Gonalo Mendez de Cancio reports that two relief boats went to Roanoke with planters, clothing, supplies and tools in 1594[xx]. If true, they too may have been lost, as there is no record of their return or future contact.  David Glavin, having been a Spanish captive at the time, corroborates this story.[xxi]

 

1602 – Gosnold, lawyer, explorer, privateer, visits Martha’s Vineyard and explores Cape Cod area.

 

1602 – John Mace sent by Sir Walter Raleigh to search for the colonists as well as to harvest sassafras.   John Mace had “been at Virginia twice before”.[xxii]

 

1603 – Raleigh funds two more expeditions, one to the Chesapeake and one that missed Hatteras entirely.[xxiii]

 

1603 – Captain Martin Pring sailed to North America and returned with holds full of sassafras.  They were reported to have landed north of Roanoke Island.  At the same time, many accounts that Sir Walter Raleigh’s colony had again been contacted were reported from several sources in England.[xxiv]

 

1603-1606 – Champlain and other French explore northern US and eastern Canada.

 

1605 – French Colony established at Port Royal (modern day Annapolis Royal, NS) but returned to France in 1608.  In 1610 it was reestablished, but burned in 1613 by Capt. Samuel Argall (from Virginia), causing the French to leave the Chesapeake.

 

1605-1606 – Nauset Indians (Mass.) skirmish with Champlain.

 

1607 – Jamestown founded.

 

1609 – The Dutch arrived among the Delaware in NJ/NY at the mouth of the Hudson River.

 

1609 – Spanish Expedition by Captain Francisco Fernandez de Ecija on the eastern seaboard ransoms a Frenchman and carries on trade and social interaction with the Indians south of current day Roanoke/Hatteras Island.  An Indian woman named Maria de Miranda, who is married to a Spaniard, translates for the Spanish/Indians and tells them that she knows where the French and English are settled, but she does not state the location[xxv].

 

1614 – Hunt sold Nauset tribal members into slavery

 

1620 – Mayflower in Plymouth, Mass.[xxvi]

 

1634 – Jesuit settlement among the Conoy in Maryland.

 

1661 – English attempt at colonization on the Cape Fear River in current Brunswick County, NC.  Colonists from Massachusetts stole Indian children to “educate” them, enslaving them.  The Indians retaliated, running off the livestock and ending the settlement.[xxvii]

 

1663 – William Hilton from Barbados arrives to explore and navigates the Charles River, later named the Cape Fear River in North Carolina.

 

1664 - 1667 – Second attempt at Cape Fear colony by a group from Barbados, located at the mouth of Town Creek (Old Town) North Carolina, but was abandoned in 1667.

 

References

 

Brasser TJ (1978)  Early Indian-European Contacts. In Trigger BG, ed., Northeast.   Handbook of North American Indians, edited by WC Sturtevant, vol. 15.  Smithsonian Institution, Washington.

 

Florida State Archives (2009)  Florida Memory Project.

 

Hudson, Charles (2005)  The Juan Pardo Expeditions, Exploration of the Carolinas and Tennessee, 1566-1568 (rev. ed.).  University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.

 

Judah JC (2008)   Legends of Brunswick County, Ghosts, Pirates, Indians and Colonial North Carolina.  Coastal Books, Wilmington.

 

 Long MW (2001)  The Five Lost Colonies of Dare, Family Research Society of Northeastern North Carolina, Elizabeth City, NC.

 

McPherson, O.M. (1915)   Indians of North Carolina, Senate Document 677, 63d Congress, 3d Session, Washington, DC, 1915.

 

 

Miller L (2001)  Roanoke: Solving the Mystery of England’s Lost Colony.  Pimlico Books, New York.

 

Mroueh  Y (1996) Pre-Columbian Muslims in America.  Originally published by The As-Sunnah Foundation of America.  Reprinted by Media Monitors web site.  http://www.mediamonitors.net/youssefmroueh1.html

 

Pinson S (2009)  The Tristan de Luna Expedition. http://www.de-luna.com/pal.html

 

Sauer CO (1971)   Sixteenth Century North America: The Land and the People as Seen by the Europeans.  University of California Press, Berkeley. 

 

 Stick D (1983)  Roanoke Island, the Beginning of English America.  University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC.

 

Swanton J (1985)   Final Report of the United States DeSoto Expedition Commission.  Reprint of the 1939 publication.  Smithsonian Institution, Washington.

 

Weiner L (1920)   Africa and the Discovery of America.  Reprinted by Innes and Sons/Kraus, Reprint Company, 1971.

 

 Wright JL (1999)    The Only Land They Knew: The American Indians in the Old South.  The University of Nebraska Press.

 

 


Endnotes


 



[i] A significant amount of speculation exists that this statement may have been politically motivated as an avenue for the English to establish their “right” to North America via first colonization of the area through Madoc. 

[ii] Known to have been a chief by 1730 and Sevier says he had been a chief at the time of the discussion for more than 50 years.

[iii] In a letter from John Sevier, Knoxville, Tennessee, October 9th, 1810, to Amos Stoddard, answering questions about ancient fortifications, particularly one on the bank of the Hiawassee River, from Sevier’s notes taken at the time.

[iv] Monacan were Siouian speakers.

[v] Tuscarora were Iroquoian speakers.

[vi] McPherson, O.M. (1915)   Indians of North Carolina, Senate, Document 677, 63d Congress, 3d Session, Washington, DC, 1915.

[vii] This is not to imply that Columbus had the opportunity to introduce European DNA into the Native tribes, but is included here as a reference point.

[viii] Legends of Brunswick County, Ghosts, Pirates, Indians and Colonial North Carolina by J. C. Judah, 2008.

[xi] The Juan Pardo Expeditions, Exploration of the Carolinas and Tennessee, 1566-1568 by Charles Hudson

[xii] 3 were left behind when Drake rescued the 1585-86 group and Grenville deposited 15 men to “hold the fort” a few weeks later who were never found, with the exception of one skeleton.  We don’t have the names of the 3 left behind, but we do know 3 names of the Grenville 15, Chapman, Cofer or Coffin and Stucley.

[xiii] A Search for the Lost Colony in Beechland by Philip McMullan, Jr.

[xiv] Florida Memory, State Archives of Florida, http://www.floridamemory.com/floridahighlights/mapstaug.cfm

[xv] The Five Lost Colonies by Mary Wood Long, p 20

[xvi] Spain and Roanoke Island Voyages by Milagros Flores, commissioned by the National Park Service at Fort Raleigh  (2008), unpublished

[xvii] Roanoke, Solving the Mystery of the Lost Colony by Lee Miller, p 208

[xviii] Roanoke, Solving the Mystery of the Lost Colony by Lee Miller, p 207

[xix] From John Lawson’s report, no date or location given, was probably south of where the Eno were in NC at the time Lawson lived among them.

[xx] Spain and Roanoke Island Voyages by Milagros Flores, commissioned by the National Park Service at Fort Raleigh  (2008), unpublished

[xxi] Roanoke, Solving the Mystery of the Lost Colony by Lee Miller p 207 and Set Fair to Roanoke: The Voyages and Colonies of 1584-1606 by David Beers Quinn p 834

[xxii] Roanoke Island the Beginning of English America by David Stick

[xxiii] Roanoke, Solving the Mystery of the Lost Colony  by Lee Miller

[xxiv] Roanoke, Solving the Mystery of the Lost Colony  by Lee Miller, p 207

[xxv] Spain and Roanoke Island Voyages by Milagros Flores, commissioned by the National Park Service at Fort Raleigh  (2008), unpublished

[xxvi] Included only as a point of reference.

[xxvii] Tales and Traditions of the Lower Cape Fear, 1661-1896 by James Sprunt, p 52