Appendix B – Warfare and Invasions

 

1521 – Ayllon’s slave hunting expedition, took 70 Cusabo Indians (SC) to Spain, further explorations in 1525 and 1526.

 

1540 – DeSoto’s expedition, he was brutal to the Indians and destroyed a great number of the Yuchi.

 

1559 – DeLuna settlement at Pensacola, Florida with 1500 soldiers/settlers, abandoned the establishment entirely the next year.

 

1565 – Muskogee (Creek) attacked by Spaniards (Georgia, Alabama).

 

1566 – 1567 - The Catawba declined from disease, liquor and constant warfare.

 

1577 – Yuchi (Florida) attacked by Spanish and suffered greatly.

 

1579 – Cusabo (SC) Indian town destroyed by Spanish.

 

1597 – Gaule towns burned (Georgia).

 

The Eno greatly resisted the advance of the Spanish (Lawson, 1709)[1].

 

1605-1606 – Nauset Indians (Mass.) skirmish with Champlain.

 

1614 – Hunt sold Nauset tribal members into slavery.

 

1617 – Massachuset tribe reduced by war with neighbor tribe and pestilence.

 

1622-1635 - Jamestown, Powhatan at war with colonists, again in 1644.

 

1637 – 600 Pequot (CT) killed in attack by whites, the survivors kept as slaves of whites or sold into West Indies as slaves.

 

1642 – 1678 - Nanticote war with the colonists (Maryland).

 

1650 – Neutrals destroyed by Iroquois (NY).

 

1656 – Powhatan (VA) defeated by Manahoac Indians.

 

1671-1676 – Cusabo (SC) at war with colonists.

 

1675 – Conoy (MD) attacked by Susquehanna.

 

1675 – In a war with the colonists, the Narranganset (RI) were massacred which ended the tribe.

 

1676 – After chronic warfare for decades, the Iroquois conquered the Susquehanna (NY, PA).

 

1683 – Winyaw in SC raided by colonists for slaves.

 

1693 – Cusabo and colonist war (SC).

 

1696 – The Coree (NC) greatly reduced before 1696 by a war with another native people.

 

1700 – Lawson states that Sewee (SC) were once a tribe with a large population but by 1700 they were wasted by smallpox and alcohol and a large number of men had been lost at sea in an attempt to open closer trade relations with England.  The Yamasee War in 1715 finished destroying them.

 

1704 – English and Creek destroy Apalachee town in Georgia, after which remaining Apalachee were sent to missions.

 

1706-1707 – Apalachicola (FL) carried off by English and Indian allies.

 

1711 – 1713 - Tuscarora War – NC and SC tribes, devastated a great many tribes, survivors sold into slavery.

 

1711 – Pamlico in NC destroyed by the Tuscarora, some may have been taken as Tuscarora slaves.

 

1715 – Yamasee War, SC and part of NC.

 

1715 – Apalachee (Georgia) involved in Yamasee War.

 

1715 – Apalachicola (Florida) in the Yamassee War.

 

1715 – Wateree (SC) devastated by Yamasee War.

 

1715 – Waxhaw (NC/SC border) mostly killed in Yamasee War.

 

1715 – Congaree in Yamasee War, SC.

 

1715 – Yamasee War ended the Sewee (SC) and Sugeree (SC, NC) Indians.

 

1715 – After the Yamasee War, most of the Santee Indians (SC) were captured and sold as slaves to the West Indies.

 

1716 – Over half of the Congaree (SC) were captured and sent to the West Indies to be slaves.

 

1720 – Waccamaw at war with colonists, survivors sold into slavery.

 

1720 – Delaware defeated by the Iroquois (NJ).

 

1722 – Iroquois agree to stop attacking the Virginia Indians.

 

1724-1725 - Abnaki are defeated by English colonists in Maine.

 

1754 – 1795 - The Shawnee are involved with the French and Indian war and subsequent incursions, widely dispersed.

 

1755 – Waccamaw at war with Cherokee and Natchez.

 

1755 – Cherokee at war with the Creek (Georgia).

 

1760 – Cherokee at war with SC.

 

1763 – Muskogee (Creek) destroyed Florida Indians prior to 1763.

 

1763 – The remnant of the Susquehanna tribe massacred by whites (Pennsylvania).

 

1769 – Cherokee defeated by Chicasaw (Northern Alabama, Mississippi).

 

1675 – Wampanoag (Mass.) war with whites, the power of the northeastern tribes destroyed.

 

1780-1794 – Cherokee sided with the British in the Revolutionary War.

 

1835-1839 – Tribal removal to lands west of Mississippi, primarily in current Oklahoma, known as the Trail of Tears.  A minimum of 20% of the population died.  Some allege that this number should be doubled or tripled and that the removal was in fact designed to maximize casualties as a form of genocide, given the time of year and lack of provisions.  After the relocation itself, many more died in their new homeland of starvation and disease.

 

References

 

Lawson, John (1709)  A New Voyage to Carolina Containing the Exact Description and Natural History of that Country Together with the Present State thereof and A Journal of a Thousand Miles, Travel’d thro’ several Nations of Indians Giving a particular Account of their Customs Manners, etc. by John Lawson, Gent. Surveyor-General of North Carolina, London, Printed in the Year 1709.  Reprinted as A New Voyage to Carolina, Hugh T. Lefler, ed., University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1984.

 



[1] From John Lawson’s report, no date or location given, was probably south of where the Eno were in NC at the time Lawson lived among them.